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~  Archaic Iron & Copper Smelters in America  ~

When Neolithic Miners Traveled the High Seas

Ancient Man-Made Stones?

In archaic and neolithic times in the Americas, people often made their own stones for retaining walls and buildings. The above and below images show that these stone walls might have been made from what 'appears' to have been a form of muddy conglomerate of powdered minerals, quartz, or other ores formed into a thick soup for fill-in forms, similar to a very thick ceramic slip, or cement; then poured into a framework or forms, dried, possibly even petrified by vitrification (fire), then hardened into layered, scroll-like stones. It has also been hypothesized that the stones might be made of sandstone with a melted and poured-in quartz (sand) infiltration.

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Being used in a high-heat metal smelter would in itself, over time have caused unblended mineral layers within the stones to become separated just as multitudinous crack-lines and chips form on very old ceramic cooking pots. From the immense heat the stones eventually dry-up, separate, and fall apart in sections. If the separating membranes were made of metal they have become petrified. Or could they actually all be natural stone cells, or possibly even petrified wood? These extremely rare stones when found elsewhere, are usually in a similar wall-like formation of small broken-off sections.

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These stones were examined and studied by David and Susan Campbell in the early 2000s, and discovered to be walls of a very large archaic, burned-out stone smelter in Oklahoma in the mid-western United States (not a UFO).But unfortunately for historians, the people owning the land did not understand, appreciate, nor want them there, and in spite of many protests had this archaic building, along with all its hand-built stone walls bull-dozed under the ground.

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Another view of the outer stones, above left. And another view of the inner, incinerated ones on right. The building may have been built during the bronze-age when neolithic metal workers mined and forged metals of copper and tin alloys into bronze and brass objects for world trade, possibly even iron objects.

The Phoenicians and Achaeans knew and used archaic cement for harbor constructions and large stone building blocks. Those same ancient Phoenicians Etruscans/Celts covered their deep circular marina ("island") walls with a copper-ore plaster whom Socrates, found in Plato's Dialogues called oricaulk. This metalic plaster was made with a compound mixture of powdered copper ore which has an aqua hue. Their hayday was during the neolithic/bronze-age after the major ice-age melt-downs. Much later they were known as Vikings.

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Both David and and his wife Susan investigated these stones before they were bull-dozed under. Susan Campbell took all the photographs and more which are not shown here. Their interesting first-hand account can be found at this Viewzone Link: Phoenician Stone Walls. More at A Fallen wall - Carpet Stone Floor. See more at More Strange Stones. And more at Close-up View. And Another Close-up.

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At left is David Campbell beside the fallen smelter wall. Above right is part of the collapsed smelter.

Turning Stone back into mud.

Then there's "Waffle Rock" below.. Man-made? Or Nature-made?

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"Waffle Rock", is a large petrified hunk of mud consisting of compressed sandstone and hematite encased in a framework. Was it once a form or mold for an ancient "stone" wall? The entire frame of petrified "mud" stones is a piece of a much larger surface area, and only a small remnant piece salvaged before the area was dammed-up and flooded to create Jennings Randolph Lake in Mineral County, West Virginia, USA. The chunk sits on the West Virginia Overlook.

The above petrified stone framework resembles the archaic smelter walls, which also resembles the Stellate Parenchysma cell-walls of the prehistoric giant trees and plants that once covered the earth. It's also possible the waffle frameworks were used as molds or forms for ready-made rock walls and why the ancient Etruscans/Basques (Phoenicians and Achaeans) used them for the fire-proof walls of their smelters, filling-in the open spaces with a conglomerate-like cement which hardened like underwater harbor cement. Also see: Ancient Trees.

Many different structures, and stone blocks were made from piles of sand and gravel by softening the pile with special liquified minerals and/or molten ores such as iron, even silver and gold, which, when melted and obsorbed into the sand or conglomerate became heaps of "play-dough-like clay-dough" with which to shape in molds or by hand into new rustic stone shapes. In archaic times, rock quarries were not always used to cut and dress stones, but to crush, and grind stone into sand, powder and conclomerates in order to create different sized stones and objects. Quarries were often called "rock crushers". Even today, sands and conglomerates are ground-up in quarries then hauled away, or constructed poured into various shapes in the molds. See also: Clay-Dough Ruins Below Index.

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